Diabetes mellitus is a relatively serious disease, to which, according to statistics, almost every fourth person is susceptible. Since today the number of patients exceeds the mark of 350 million people, the diet for diabetes mellitus is being carefully studied, which, according to experts, should be followed not only by patients, but also by people prone to the development of the disease.
Excess weight, genetic predisposition or stomach disease can lead to a sudden cessation of insulin production and other unpleasant manifestations, and adherence to a diet will be a necessary step to maintain normal conditions.
Nutritional characteristics in diabetes mellitus
The diet for diabetes can vary significantly depending on the type of disease. As a rule, there are 2 main types of diabetes mellitus, of which there are several forms and rules of nutrition, which are caused by the cause of metabolic disorders and the conversion of sugar into glucose.
But each type of disease requires adherence to general eating habits.
Basic nutritional guidelines for diabetes
Nutrition for diabetes should be carried out in strict adherence to basic rules. So, for both types of diseases, there are the following aspects in the diet:
- The diet should contain protein, fat and carbohydrates in a balanced ratio in relation to the presence of disease.
- The number of meals should be increased slightly. So you need to eat every 3-4 hours in small portions, meals for diabetics should be low in calories.
- The caloric content of foods and meals should be calculated carefully and meticulously - it should not exceed daily energy consumption. Otherwise, the chances of weight gain increase, which in diabetes is fraught with complications.
- Almost any diet for patients with presented diseases pursues the basics of a proper and balanced diet. You should include in the diet of vegetables and fruits, carbohydrates and proteins, do not neglect fats and amino acids.
It should be noted that each patient should consult with their healthcare professional about the basics of nutrition for their specific case. It is not recommended to follow a specific diet, although it is intended for diabetics, without consulting a doctor.
The treating physician must calculate the caloric content for the patient, as well as make certain changes according to the individual characteristics of the organism.
Type 1 diabetes and diet
Although it sounds strange, the type 1 diabetes diet is based on proper insulin administration, so here you should take into account the consumption of foods that increase blood sugar significantly.
It turns out that for such patients, nutrition does not require any restrictions, just need to carry out proper accounting and timely administration of insulin into the blood. The following principles and rules for administering insulin are found here:
- Foods that do not contain a lot of carbohydrates in their composition should not be taken into account. For example, meat and fish, eggs and cheese, cottage cheese and butter may be consumed in reasonable quantities, but their consumption should not be reduced or eliminated.
- Only products containing carbohydrates can be counted - these are flour and confectionery products, as well as plant products and liquid dairy products.
Insulin should be given according to the amount of food taken. You should also adjust yourself in time to food intake. Here you need to use the following principles and rules to administer insulin:
- if treatment occurs with short -acting insulin, then its introduction occurs 20 minutes before meals;
- if treatment occurs with insulin of moderate duration of action, then its introduction occurs 40 minutes before meals;
- when using the combined type of insulin, it is administered according to the scheme 20 minutes before breakfast, every 3 hours during the day and half an hour before a full dinner.
The insulin dose should be calculated according to the amount of food consumed. The calculation is carried out by counting the units of bread (XE).
This unit is a 25 g piece of bread (10-12 g of carbohydrates), which increases a person’s blood sugar by 1. 8 mmol / L.
The treating doctor can tell you exactly about the calculations. Also, for accurate calculation of insulin dose, you should study the table, which shows the indicators of carbohydrate content in each product.
Type 2 diabetes and diet
The type 2 diabetes diet is different from the type 1 diet. Here, one should take into account not only the products that are allowed to be consumed, but also monitor the calorie content of the daily diet carefully. So, here are the following indicators:
- normal daily caloric content should be in the range of 1600-2500 kcal, depending on the patient's weight and energy consumption;
- with the presence of excess weight, the caloric content is necessarily reduced to 1300-1500 kcal;
- if there is a lot of excess weight, the treating doctor can reduce the caloric content to 1000 kcal per day;
- there are times when being overweight significantly exceeds the norm and the daily caloric content is reduced to 600-900 kcal.
The caloric content of the food should be calculated by the attending physician, as not only indicators of a person's weight are taken into account, but also the presence of diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias, severe chronic diseases, gout, and mental disorders.
The diet for patients with type 2 diabetes is as follows:
- Carbohydrates from the total daily diet should not exceed 55%. Preference should be given to products saturated with vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. For example, whole wheat breads, whole grains, legumes, and vegetables. For products that contain sugar, it is completely abandoned. Instead of sugar, xylitol or sorbitol is allowed to be consumed at a rate of 0. 5 g per 1 kg of patient weight, divided simultaneously into 2-3 doses.
- Protein for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is allowed according to the physiological norms of healthy people - 90 g per day. Preference should be given to lean meats in the form of chicken, lean fish and cottage cheese. The daily intake of protein in the diet is 15-20%.
- 30% of the daily ration contains fat, which comes to the body at a greater rate than vegetable oils.
- They consume salty and fatty foods in limited quantities.
Experts advise to take seriously the diet of diabetics. It is better to make a menu for every day, for 2-3 days or even a full week.
It would not be superfluous to present it to the treating physician, who will be able to make adjustments according to the patient’s state of health.
Features of a low carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes
As a rule, the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, which requires immediate removal so that a person can tolerate the disease more easily and not expose the body to sharp and significant "jumps" in blood sugar levels.
Therefore, many experts recommend a low -carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes. What is it?
Scientists have suggested that it is quite difficult for sick people to adhere to proper nutrition and basic principles immediately after diagnosing their disease.
In addition, the main task here is to lose excess weight, therefore, patients need to reduce calorie intake, which is not always possible.
So, a person begins to experience a sharp drop in blood sugar levels, which follows in connection with constant hunger. This, according to scientists, can be easily avoided by eating more protein.
Protein foods are great for weight loss. In addition, in diabetes mellitus, protein foods are the safest. This diet is more reminiscent of everyone’s usual "Kremlin".
But such a diet should be done only with the permission of the attending physician, because the intake of protein in the body in large quantities can be harmful to health and trigger more severe chronic diseases.
If the presented diet is followed, it is recommended to take special vitamins for diabetics, which will be prescribed by the attending physician.
Principles and basics of the diet "Table Number 9".
Most experts support not only proper nutrition, but also the use of special medical diets.
Therefore, especially for patients with the presented diseases, a diet has been developed, called "Table No. 9", which corresponds to the approved list for all medical nutritional bases.
He shows exactly how to eat with diabetes mellitus properly, listing foods that are allowed and forbidden.
The menu presented is also divided into two categories, corresponding to the first and second types of diseases. But there are general principles that need to be learned and followed to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Dietary principles "Table Number 9".
The diet presented contains basic principles that should be taken into account without question. These include the following aspects:
- Food can be taken up to 6 times a day. The main feature is that you need to eat every 3 hours in small portions.
- The menu for diabetics is arranged without including fried, spicy, fatty foods.
- You can only eat dishes that are boiled, stewed and baked.
- Sweets for diabetics should be replaced with natural products or with the addition of sweeteners.
"Table No. 9" contains a complete list of foods allowed to be eaten, rich in vitamins and other useful microelements. You should pay attention to fruits with a high content of ascorbic acid, which are allowed to be eaten in small quantities during the day.
What you can eat with diabetes
The fully presented diet shows patients what to eat with diabetes mellitus of any kind. These foods are recommended to be included in the diet to maintain sugar levels and prevent complications. Permitted products include:
- all flour products made from whole grains and wheat flour;
- sausages with low fat content and fat inclusion;
- all types of fish associated with low -fat types;
- all kinds of lean meats;
- vegetables and green vegetables;
- fruits with low sugar content;
- oatmeal, buckwheat and cereals are allowed from cereals;
- any low -fat dairy products;
- tea, freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables are allowed, herbal teas are allowed from beverages.
Foods are allowed to be eaten according to the above rules and characteristics, depending on the type of disease.
What not to eat with diabetes
In the diet of "Table number 9" there is a list of prohibited foods, they must be eaten with utmost caution and accuracy. The list of prohibited products includes:
- all types of sweets, including sweets with a high sugar content (kind of jam);
- fatty chicken meat;
- salinity in the form of salted fish, salted canned foods and other pickles;
- fatty and drinkable fermented milk products, for example, baked milk, cream and yogurt;
- you cannot eat strong meat soup;
- pasta, rice and semolina are prohibited - they increase sugar levels;
- hot spices, condiments, snacks;
- sweet fruits;
- industrial juices from the packaging - they have a high sugar content;
- any alcoholic beverages.
The type of disease in this case does not at all affect the possibility of consuming prohibited foods. According to experts, patients with type 1 diabetes should also stick to a diet so as not to aggravate the condition.
Fruits and vegetables are controversial for diabetes
There are several controversial issues in the diet of diabetics. Saying that natural products are allowed, including spices, doctors themselves began to restrict the use of patients. What is the reason for this?
Controversial fruits in diabetes
The article has repeatedly mentioned that in the presence of presented diseases, sugar-free fruits are allowed to be eaten. They contain little sugar, and therefore, it will not harm the patient in any way.
However, what fruits to eat with diabetes mellitus, even long-experienced patients do not know exactly. Needless to say about the ban on the use of grapes, but there are some controversial fruits, including:
- persimmon. Is it possible to eat persimmon with diabetes mellitus, if the taste vaguely resembles sweet. It is this fact that confuses most patients.
It turns out, in fact, this fruit contains a lot of vitamins, amino acids, trace elements and sucrose. This fact allows sick people to use persimmon, as it has a beneficial effect on the body. But this fruit also has a high glycemic index - 70%.
It turns out that you can eat persimmons, but only in limited quantities - 70 g of fruit is 1 XE. Persimmons for type 2 diabetes mellitus are also allowed to be eaten, but in limited quantities - no more than 1 fruit per day.
- Mandarin. Citrus fruits are allowed for diabetics, but in moderation. But whether it is possible to eat tangerines with diabetes mellitus is a debatable matter.
The fact is that tangerines contain large amounts of carbohydrates, which leads to a sharp increase in blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, experts advise not to eat tangerines, even in moderation.
- Watermelon and watermelon. By the end of summer, watermelons ripen, which encourages patients to eat watermelons and melons.
These berries have a high glycemic index - 75% and 65%, respectively. This leads to a sharp release of sugar into the patient’s blood, which causes discomfort and causes fainting.
These products for diabetics are banned or require the use of bread units. Each patient should consult with the treating physician, who can calculate the dose of fruit allowed to be eaten.
Controversial vegetables and roots in diabetes mellitus
The use of vegetables in diabetes mellitus is also subject to controversy.
Many patients are unaware that vegetables and root crops such as potatoes, carrots, beets and tomatoes are under the most stringent prohibitions.
The vegetables listed contain large amounts of glucose, starch and sugar, which are unacceptable to be eaten by patients with diabetes mellitus.
The following products are also subject to consideration:
- Jerusalem artichokes for diabetesRecommended for use by many experts. It contains a lot of amino acids, trace elements and inulin, which is at least 80%. These enzymes are polysaccharides composed of various fructose chains. It turns out that this root vegetable should not be eaten in unlimited quantities, but it must be included in the diet for diabetes mellitus, because its benefits lie in the prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Pumpkin is a useful vegetable for diabetics. It contains a large amount of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, which has a positive effect on weight control and maintenance, and also contributes to weight loss. As a result, it turns out that pumpkin with type 2 diabetes mellitus must be eaten, you just need to carefully monitor the amount of product in the dish, because there is also a high sugar content here.
- Sauerkraut with diabetes also provokes a lot of controversy, because, as already mentioned above, salting for patients is prohibited. However, this type of salting is allowed to be consumed by patients with type 2 diabetes. Cabbage and oranges increase metabolism, resulting in gradual weight loss. Also, there are useful qualities for the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, you can use sauerkraut, but only in small quantities.
Looking at recipes for diabetics, you can reveal many interesting things in food consumption, including vegetables and fruits.
Here, you should carefully consider the amount of product needed for cooking. If necessary, you should calculate the amount of food you are allowed to eat.
Healthy foods for diabetes
For diabetics, some natural products act only as a beneficial effect on the functioning of the whole body. So, for example, you cannot completely exclude glucose consumption. It is the basis of most processes in the human body, acting as an essential part.
Based on the needs and benefits of using natural products for diabetes mellitus, scientists provide their list, which lists all the properties that should be followed when choosing and at the time of making a diet.
Most patients refuse to take honey. It seems to contain a lot of sugar and glucose. As it turns out, this natural product is only 40% sucrose. But it contains the same amount of glucose, which can leave the use of honey banned for diabetes.
However, experts say that honey is no substitute for diabetes. They can replace regular and regular sugar.
The portion of honey for type 2 diabetes should not exceed 1-2 tbsp. Divide it into several steps: add to baked goods or tea.
Cinnamon is mandatory for patients with type 2 diabetes. Due to the composition of the spice in the body, the sensitivity of cells to the insulin produced increases, which helps normalize and reduce blood sugar levels.
In addition, cinnamon in diabetes helps cleanse the blood vessels and internal organs of toxins and toxins, which has a positive effect on the prevention of thrombophlebitis and other serious diseases.
For a pleasant cinnamon smear, add half a teaspoon to your tea or coffee. You can also sprinkle all dishes with a little spice, according to your taste and preferences.
Bay leaves in diabetes mellitus is necessary to use, but is contraindicated in the presence of serious diseases. So, these natural products must be used to strengthen immunity, speed up metabolism, cleanse the body of toxins and toxins.
On the other hand, bay leaves should not be eaten by people with end -stage diabetes, kidney disease, or stomach ulcers.
Bay leaves are mandatory for type 2 diabetes, in which patients are overweight and have high cholesterol.
The use of bay leaves is allowed in the form of bandages for dishes, but it is still more useful to use infusions. To prepare it, take 10 pieces of laurel and pour three glasses of boiling water.
Allow the infusion to infuse for 3-4 hours. Take the composition of 100 g up to three times a day and a half hours before meals. This will help keep your glucose levels at the right level.
Almost no one knows about the benefits of stevia in diabetes mellitus, but regular infusion use helps keep glucose at needed levels, strengthens blood vessels, lowers cholesterol and blood pressure, and significantly improves blood microcirculation.
This collection is easy to buy at the pharmacy. It should be brewed according to the instructions presented, and the herbal tea should be drunk hot and in small sips.
Eat with diabetes mellitus properly, according to the basic recommendations of experts. This way you can keep your blood sugar levels at a healthy level and feel great in any emergency.